Warsaw Uprising Monument
This monument was unveiled on 1st August 1989 on the 45th anniversary of the start of the Uprising. It can be found on the east side of Krasińskich Square, near the place where the Warsaw resistance evacuated from the Old Town to the city centre using the sewers. There are 2 parts to the monument - bronze figures of the insurgents, running out from underneath a huge concrete block, symbolise the outbreak of the Uprising and the figures standing above the manhole covers symbolise its end. On the back wall of the 1st part there is a relief showing wartime posters and orders as well as information on the sculptors and history of the monument. The sculpture, designed by Wincenty Kućma i Jacek Budyn, raised mixed emotions among Varsovians. It was criticised as a return to social realism in style, for its shameful portrayal of a national disaster and for deepening national discord. Before its construction, discussions about its design and location went on for over a dozen years. From 1980 various competitions (including one won by the Kućma and Budyna design) were organised as well as a gathering of donations and materials for the monument.
Warsaw Uprising Museum
This is one of the most interesting places in Warsaw and one of the most modern museums in Poland. There are no boring display cases or traditional exhibits, the museum exploits a variety of media: light, sound and vision. Located in a 60s postindustrial building which once housed a tram power station, the museum was opened on the 60th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising as a branch of Warsaw's History Museum. In 3000m2 of floor space there are 1000 exhibits, 1500 photographs and 200 biographies.
A fundamental element are the photos of Warsaw during the uprising, both large-scale as well as on various kinds of screen. The visitors route takes you various themed rooms showing the fortunes of the uprising in chronological order. The central feature of the museum is the steel monument which connects all the floors of the museum on which the key dates of the uprising are engraved. There are also a few attractions for younger visitors. In the Young Insurgent room you can get to know the history of the uprising presented by the Uprising Theatre as well as play with replicas of 2nd world war toys.
Another interesting part of the exhibition is a hall in which there is a replica of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator aeroplane piloted by Zbigniew Szostak and shot down by the Luftwaffe. You can find also some periodic exhibitions, conferences, meetings and other events in this place. In the basement you can get an idea of what it was like in occupied Warsaw in the exhibition called "Germans".
The Warsaw Uprising Museum is surrounded by the Park of Freedom, in which the most interesting object is the Wall of Remembrance where the names of 11 000 people who died during the Uprising are carved out. The centrepiece of the wall is a quarter-ton bell, 'Monter', which was cast in honour of the leader of the Uprising, General Antoni Chruściel.
This is one of the most characteristic monuments in the capital. It was built in 1988 according to a design by Hanna Szmalenberg and Władysław Klamerus. It is located near a now non-existent railway platform which was used to load prisoners onto trains headed for the extermination camps. The monument resembles an open freight car on a small square.
4-metre high, white walls surround the square and have sad black plaques which look down on visitors with their inscriptions in several languages - "Over 300,000 Jews followed this path of suffering and death between 1940-1943 from the Ghetto created in Warsaw to the Nazi death camps". A huge black stone crowns the monument, engraved with broken trees.
Because the builders used poor materials a renovation was called for in 2007 which lasted 1 year. Jan Beyga was in charge of the project which cost just over half a million zloties.
This is the only Warsaw synagogue which is still used as a house of prayer. It is also an important Jewish cultural centre in Poland. Concerts, exhibitions and meetings are held here, with the participation of representatives of the Polish and foreign governments.
Construction started in 1893 and was initiated by Zalman Nożyk, a wealthy haberdashery trader. The design was said to be by Leandro Marconi although this is not confirmed. It cost 250 000 roubles to build and was financed in its entirety by Rywka and Zalman Nożyk. It was completed at the end of February 1902. The ceremonial opening of the temple which could host 600 guests - 300 women and 300 men - was on the 12th May 1902. The prewar synagogues were not normally very ornate buildings and were built at low cost in less popular areas. However, the opening of this beautiful, modern synagogue n the very centre o Grzybowa Steet, the prewar Jewish district, met with an enthusiastic response from the Jewish community. Not only were its size, acoustics and beautiful interior design praised, but also its excellent ventilation, which "served to keep in good health those in attendance for long hours". It was mostly rich Warsaw Jews who attended the synagogue, who had reserved seats they had paid for. The poor could use special free places, which were made available at certain times.
When the 2nd World War broke out the synagogue was totally demolished by the Nazis who turned it into a stable. In the middle of 1941, the Warsaw occupational authorities allowed the reopening of the synagogue which was on the boundaries of the Warsaw ghetto. After the liquidation of the ghetto, the synagogue was closed again. It is one of few buildings, which, despite heavy damage, was not wiped off the map during the Warsaw uprising. Its solid construction held up well during bombardments and was provisionally renovated soon after the war thanks to money raised by Jews which had survived the war. The first service after the war took place on 19th April 1945 on the anniversary of the ghetto uprising and was the first Jewish-Christian meeting for prayer, with the Warsaw Rabbi Michael Schudrich and Catholic bishop Henryk Muszyński in attendance. At the beginning of the 1990s several serious antisemitic incidents took place. The synagogue was subject to an arson attack at the end of 1997, but thanks to the speedy reaction of a passer-by and a successful intervention by the fire brigade, only the porch was burnt down.
This cemetery is as big as the Vatican City - 44 hectares! It was one of the first necropoleis in Europe and was established in 1790. The land was offered by district leader, Melcior Szymanowski, as a "field" burial site - until then the dead had been buried in church catacombs or in small cemeteries in church grounds. Powązki Cemetery is located between Okopowa, Powąkowski and Tatarska Streets and is one of 6 objects belonging to the largest Warsaw necropolis - the Communal and Military Cemeteries in Powązki and the Evangelical, Jewish, Calvinist and Muslim Cemeteries. The graves of over 1 million people are here including those of well-known and distinguished Poles - politicians, actors, scientists, writers and social activists. The parents of Frederic Chopin were buried here as well as Stanisław Moniuszko, Władysław Reymont, Bolesław Leśmian, Kalina Jędrusik, Krzysztof Komeda and Hanka Bielicka among others. During the war Jews, on the run from the Gestapo, hid in the catacombs and the resistance gathered arms and kept them in the crypts and tombs. During the Uprising, battles took place among the gravestones. The whole terrain of the cemetery is under the protection of the Capital's Conservation of Monuments Office.